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If no cards from the trump suit are played, the card with the highest rank while following the lead suit wins.
If one or more cards from the trump suit are played, the highest trump suited card wins the trick. The player winning the trick will take the 3 cards used in the trick.
These will be used in the scoring process. The round continues until all cards are played out. Each player then counts their scores based on the taken tricks.
Skat scoring is based on multiple factors including card values, multipliers, game type and the Skat. Scoring is always assigned to the winning bidder, or declarer.
If the declarer wins the game, they get assigned a positive score. If the declarer losses the game, the scores will be deducted from their total at double the value.
The most obvious scoring is based on the cards won in each trick. The card values are as described in the following table:. Also, note that in Null games, there are no card points, the game is entirely predicated on the fact that the calling bidder cannot take even one trick.
If the bid exceeds the game value at the end of the round, it is considered an overbid. This hand is considered lost, even if the bidder has the most points in terms of card value.
This results in a negative score for the winning bidder. The overbid hands are scored based on the lowest possible game value, multiplied with the modifiers that would have been applied if the winning bidder did not lose via overbidding.
For example, if the bidder wins the bid with a bid value of 30, but has a game value of 24 after exchanging cards from the Skat, then the bidder will have overbid.
Assuming the suit of the game was declared as clubs, it has a base value of Players cut to deal, and each player is dealt ten cards in batches of 3 and 4, with two for the center, the Skat.
In most bidding games, the winner of the bidding simply calls trumps, with few other options. In Skat, however, the Player has an array of options or game formats which can be taken that best fits their hand.
Skat games have an unusual bidding sequence. In which case, if Middlehand wants to continue bidding, must increase their bid. This continues until one of them, Middlehand or Leader, passes.
A player can choose to play with or without a trump and with or without using the Skat, or by using only the four Jacks as Trump.
Solo: Without looking at the Skat, the player declares a trump suit, and then plays their hand without using the Skat.
Grand Solo: Grand Solo is played with only the Jacks as trumps. The player does not take the Skat in hand. Gusker: the player picks up the Skat cards without showing them and discards any other two cards face down.
Play proceeds with only the Jacks as trumps. Nullo: Is a contract to lose all tricks without looking at the Skat.
The hand is played without a trump suit. Ouvert: The player exposes their entire hand before the opening lead, contracting either to win all tricks with Jacks as trumps — Grand Ouvert — or to lose all tricks — Null Ouvert.
Ramsch: Played only when all three players pass without bidding, and the Leader must play the hand. With only Jacks as trumps, each player tries to win as few tricks as they can.
A turn consists of: Drawing a card from the top of the deck or discard Discarding a single card You are not permitted to draw the top card from the discard and then immediately discard it.
Declaring 31 If a player reaches 31, they immediately show their cards and claim their victory! If a player calls 31 all players puts a penny in the kitty including the knocker.
If you run out of pennies you are out of the game. The game ends when one player remains. Except for A-K-Q which is 31 points. Minimum Knock Score , could be , for example.
Points from tricks are not directly added to the players' overall score, they are used only to determine the outcome of the game win or loss for declarer , although winning by certain margins may increase the score for that round.
After each round a score is awarded in accordance with the game value. If the declarer wins they are awarded a positive score, if they lose the score is doubled and subtracted from the declarer's tally i.
In tournaments a winning declarer gets an additional 50 points if they win, if the defending team wins however they receive 40 points each in addition to the declarer losing twice the game's value in points.
The pack consists of 32 cards. Some players in Eastern and Southern Germany and Austria prefer traditional German packs with suits of acorns , leaves , hearts and bells , and card values of deuce Daus , king König , Ober , Unter , 10, 9, 8, and 7 in all four suits.
By contrast, regions of the former West Germany had adopted a French-suited pack. At the beginning of each round each player is dealt ten cards, with the two remaining cards the so-called Skat being put face down in the middle of the table.
Dealing follows this pattern: deal three cards each, then deal the Skat , then four cards each, then three cards again "three— Skat —four—three".
In four-player rounds, the dealer does not receive any cards and skips actual play of the round. He or she may peek into the hand of one other player if allowed to do so but never into the Skat.
Dealing rotates clockwise around the table, so that the player sitting to the left of the dealer will be dealer for the next round. After the cards have been dealt, and before the deal is played out, a bidding or auction German : Reizen is held to decide:.
The goal for each player during the bidding is to bid a game value as high as their card holding would allow, but never higher than necessary to win the bidding.
How the actual game value is determined is explained in detail below and is necessary to understand in order to know how high one can safely bid.
It is possible for a player to overbid, which leads to an automatic loss of the game in question. Often this does not become obvious before the player picks up the Skat , or even not before the end of the game in question in case of a hand game, when the Skat is not picked up.
Players have therefore to exercise careful scrutiny during bidding, as not to incur an unnecessary loss. The bidding may also give away some information about what cards a player may or may not hold.
Experienced players will be able to use this to their advantage. The game value also called hand value , German : Spielwert is what the game will be worth after all tricks have been played.
It is determined not only by the 10 cards held, but also by the two-card Skat. The Skat always belongs to the declarer, and if it contains certain high cards this may change the game value.
It is therefore not possible in general to determine the exact game value before knowing the Skat. The game value is determined by the type of the game and the game level as explained below for the suit, grand and null games.
In a suit game German : Farbspiel , one of the four suits is the trump suit. Each suit has a base value German : Grundwert , as follows:.
This base value is then multiplied by the multiplier game level German : Spielstufe or Gewinngrad to determine the game value, so:.
The multiplier game level of 1 for becoming declarer is always assumed. It is then increased by one for each of the following:. In case of a Hand game declarer does not pick up the Skat , the following special cases are allowed.
Each one increases the multiplier game level by another point:. Cards in the trump suit are ordered as follows this is important to know when counting the length of the matador's jack straight :.
As mentioned above, the cards in the Skat are to be included when determining the multiplier game level also in case of the Hand game, where the Skat is unknown until after the deal has been played out.
During bidding, each player therefore has incomplete information regarding the true game value. The final game value is calculated by multiplying the base value for the suit by the multiplier game level:.
Grand game is a special case of suit game, in which only the Jacks are trumps in the same order as in the suit game:. The base value for the grand game is 24 in the official rules.
It used to be 20 until , and many hobbyists continued to use 20 well into the postwar era. All other rules for determining game value are as in a suit game, that is, the base value of 24 is multiplied by the multiplier game level.
In the null game, declarer promises not to take any tricks at all. There is no trump suit, 10s are sorted directly above 9s, and jacks are treated as normal suit cards sorted between 10 and queen.
Thus the cards are ordered: A-K-Q-J The game values of null games are fixed, as follows:. The following examples give a player's holding and the contents of the Skat which will be unknown to all players during the bidding and explain how to derive the game value.
The multiplier game level will be 2 1 for matador's jack straight plus 1 for becoming declarer. Note that game value is dependent not only on the cards held including the Skat but also on which game is being declared and the outcome of the play.
Each holding can thus be evaluated differently by different players. A risk-taking player might be willing to declare Hand on a holding on which another player might not — these two players will therefore give different valuations to the same holding.
However, after all tricks have been played, it is always possible to determine the exact game value by combining the actual holding with the type of game and outcome of the play.
Only then it becomes apparent if declarer has won or lost if he overbid. Assuming a trump suit of hearts in a suit game, this holding will have a different valuation before and after the Skat has been examined.
With Hearts as trump, the game value will always be at least that much. Now, assuming declarer wins by taking 95 points in tricks, after having declared Hand and Schneider , the actual game value will be as follows:.
The player could have bid up to that value during the bidding. Now for the special cases: if you think you can do more than just win, you can add points for the special cases.
The highest possible multiplier game level is that is with or without four jacks and all seven cards of trump suit including those in the Skat , if any 11, plus the maximum of 7 for becoming declarer, Hand , Schneider , declaring Schneider , Schwarz , declaring Schwarz and Ouvert.
The order of bidding is determined by the seating order. Starting from the left of the dealer players are numbered clockwise: the first seat German : Vorhand , the second seat German : Mittelhand and the third seat German : Hinterhand.
In a three-player game, the dealer will be the third seat. In a four-player game the third seat will be to the right of the dealer.