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Following the tradition of putting a soldier in charge of the army and a sailor in charge of the navy, an aviator was designated to lead the Luftwaffe: Reichsmarschall Herman Göring, also the cabinet minister for aviation.
Within the German air force leadership, the general opinion was that the Luftwaffe was a tactical rather than a strategic air force.
Hence, in order to support the various army groups, the Luftwaffe was organized in similar fashion to the army. Its units had a flexible composition with sub-units being added or removed when necessary.
These sub-units tended to be semi-autonomous and highly mobile. This offered the flexibility required to support the ground units.
From the start of the Spanish Civil War , the Luftwaffe was in action continuously without the time for rest or training. Multiple political acts and the consequent need for a show of strength forced the Luftwaffe to be in a perpetual state of readiness.
This did not allow time for organizational strategy. Göring complicated the hierarchy by bringing the paratrooper German : Fallschirmjäger and Flak corps anti-aircraft units under his command.
Due to his political differences with the army leadership, he raised his own police force as Prussian Minister of the Interior. By September , the Luftwaffe had a total of 4, aircraft and , personnel.
This strength had grown to 1,, by In total, , of these were in anti-aircraft units and another 18 percent were in the signals branch. Only 36 percent or , comprised aircrew, but this also included the aircraft maintenance personnel.
When the war ended on 8 May , more than 97, air-crew would be reported dead, wounded or missing.
Göring was the cabinet minister of aviation German : Reichsminister der Luftfahrt during most of this period.
As a cabinet minister, he was responsible for civil aviation and all aspects of aircraft manufacturing and supply.
These three branches were further divided into sub-branches such as Paratroops, air engineering, air medical corps and air-crew. Since the Luftwaffe was organized in a geographical fashion rather than on a strategic functional basis, it had an independent administrative as well as an operational command structures.
Each geographical area had its own supply and maintenance corps. For this reason, any aviation units moving within that geographical area did not need to carry its own maintenance staff.
This allowed for a great deal of mobility within the Luftwaffe. Within the OKW, each service was headed by its own operational command:.
These institutions together were responsible for the direction of research, production and overall maintenance of aircraft.
As head of the Luftwaffe, Göring was responsible for the overall war effort and for the resources sent to a particular region. As a cabinet minister, he was able to get significant resources and personnel allocated to the Luftwaffe compared to other branches of the armed forces.
The OKL, as the operational branch of the RLM, had complete control over unit movements, formation and personnel transfers. It had a strength of 25, personnel in Each air fleet was responsible for a particular geographic region.
They were self-contained units equipped with all types of aircraft and their own supply elements, maintenance staff, administration and legal departments.
At the start of the war the Luftwaffe had four Luftflotten , each responsible for roughly a quarter of Germany.
As the war progressed, three more were created as the areas under German rule expanded. Luftflotte 5 was created in to direct operations in Norway and Denmark.
The commander of each Luftflotte was responsible for all fighter as well as support operations within that region.
A fighter leader German : Jagdführer Jafü was responsible for fighter operations within that region and reported to the commander. Each Luftflotte in turn was divided into many air districts German : Luftgaue and air corps German : Fliegerkorps.
The purpose of a Luftgau was to provide administrative and logistical support to each airfield, whereas the Fliegerkorps controlled all operational matters.
The Luftgau headquarters command consisted of one Generalmajor and a staff of 50 to officers. Each Fliegerkorps would have a number of smaller units under its command.
These numbers varied as sub-units were added or removed. Each geschwader had a particular task such as fighter, bomber, or transport duties and were mostly equipped with aircraft appropriate to that task.
Other types of aircraft were also sometimes attached. The unit also had other staff officers with administrative duties such as the German : adjutant , technical and operations officers.
These were usually although not always , experienced aircrew still flying on operations. Other specialist staff were navigation , signals and intelligence personnel.
A Gruppe plural Gruppen was the basic autonomous unit in the Luftwaffe. A Gruppe was usually commanded by a Major or Hauptmann. Each Staffel plural Staffeln usually had nine to 12 aircraft and was commanded by a Hauptmann or Oberleutnant.
As such it was slightly smaller than a British, Soviet or US squadron. The assumption that a Staffel was the exact equivalent of a squadron sometimes caused Western Allied leaders to overestimate German air power.
Specialized, independent Gruppen or Staffeln sometimes sat below the level of a Fliegerkorps. A bomber Schwarm at full strength, six aircraft was divided into a Kette "chain" of three aircraft.
As such, a bomber Schwarm was equivalent to a flight in the Western Allied air forces. A Kette was also the term used for a "v" formation.
The term Rotte was also used for a formation of two aircraft: the smallest tactical unit, consisting of a leader and a wingman.
A German : Stabschwarm "staff schwarm " was attached to each Geschwader. The OKW was the highest in the military command structure.
It was responsible for the co-ordinated effort of the three military arms. It was headed by Wilhelm Keitel after he took over from war minister Werner von Blomberg in Since the head of the Luftwaffe, Göring, was also a cabinet minister, any Luftwaffe operational orders would come from Hitler to him, who would pass them on to Luftwaffe leaders, bypassing the OKW.
This created a military command out of the all encompassing Reich Air Ministry RLM , controlling all aspects of aviation. The OKL covered general as well as operational staff of the Luftwaffe.
The following parts of the Luftwaffe were under its command:  . The other components, such as armament and aircraft manufacturing remained under the control of the RLM.
It was strategically divided into eight directorates German : Abteilungen numbered consecutively. The directorates were:.
There were also 17 Inspectorates German : Luftwaffen Inspektion :. These were each the size of an Air Corps and were basic territorial units of the Luftwaffe following its geographical organization.
Their headquarters were as given in the table: . In addition, Luftkreis VII was established on 12 October with its headquarters at Braunschweig, and is shown incorporated into the above-mentioned table .
Each Luftkreis was led by a Höherer Fliegerkommandeur Senior Air Commander in charge of all aviation units within its area. These included, two or three Luftgaukommandos administrative commands , a signals command, a medical battalion and a procurement and supply group.
Their area of operations also included civilian airfields and Civil Air Defense. The following year, all the replacement battalions in that area also came under their control.
In , these were extended to regiment size or Fliegerersatzregimente. From to , Flak units in the area also came under their command.
Hermann Göring and Erhard Milch appointed retired army lieutenant generals to lead each Luftkreis. They were promoted to General der Flieger.
A retired navy officer, Konrad Zander , was similarly promoted and put in charge of Luftkreis VI supporting the naval units.
Operationally, the Luftwaffe organization underwent changes in July Luftkreise were consolidated into three Luftwaffengruppenkommandos Airforce Group Commands.
This change also rendered the three digit Geschwader identifiers meaningless. From 1 November , Geschwader identifiers were changed universally.
The third digit of the Unit Identifier was replaced with the same digit as its parent Luftwaffengruppenkommando. For example, all units under Luftwaffengruppenkommando 1 headquartered in Berlin , had the third digit of their identifiers replaced with a '1'.
By the end of April , another Luftwaffengruppenkommando was added. All four Luftwaffengruppenkommando were renamed Luftflotte Air Fleets.
Geschwader under each Luftflotte , were re-numbered sequentially. Each Luftflotte received a batch of For example, Luftflotte 1 Geschwader were numbered 0—25, Luftflotte 2 Geschwader became 26—50 and so on.
Within the Air Ministry, for administration purposes, the Luftwaffe was organized into Luftgaue Air Districts , based on the army's Wehrkreis "military districts".
A Luftgau was responsible for all administrative activities, such as training, administration, maintenance, air defense, signals, recruitment and reserve personnel.
Those Luftgaue established within Germany were numbered non-consecutively with Roman numerals. Luftgaue were also established as required in occupied Europe and were named after their location:.
These sections were numbered in Arabic numerals followed by a Luftgau designator. Flying units used the services of a Luftgau through Flughafenbereichkommandanturen Airfield Regional Commands.
Each Luftgau usually had five such commands. Each regional command was divided into five or more Einsatzhafenkommandanturen Operational Airfield Commands.
The operational commands were located at the airfields where it serviced the flying units. Operationally under the OKL, all Luftwaffe units were organized into Luftflotte , which were equivalent to an army group.
Its size and number of subordinated units, was flexible and changed depending on need. The Luftflotten were created according to the geographical area.
As the Wehrmacht occupied new territories, new Luftflotten were created. Each Luftflotte , had an adjutant or staff officer assisting the commanding officer.
Although a Luftflotte could be moved from one area to another by the RLM, the Luftflotte had absolute control over all aspects of aviation in that area, including ground operations.
This also included legal, administration, signals and supply work. They were essentially divided into operational or administrative commands.
The signal services consisted of three Luft-Nachrichtenregimenter signals regiments in a Luftflotte. There was also a Fliegerabwehrkanone Flak unit.
A Luftflotte was operationally divided into one or more Fliegerkorps "Air Corps" of varying size, depending on its area of operations. They were responsible for all operational matters such as deployment, air traffic, ordnance and maintenance.
A Fliegerkorps could potentially be loaned out to another Luftflotte depending on the nature of the operation. There were a total of 13 Fliegerkorps.
Similar to the Luftflotte , each Fliegerkorps had its own geographical area of operations. It consisted of several Geschwader along with Reconnaissance Gruppen Groups.
The Geschwader could be either fighter or bomber units. Depending on the nature or purpose of the Fliegerkorps , it would have only bomber or fighter units.
Similar to the Luftflotte , a Fliegerkorps also had an adjutant as well as other departments. However, it did depend on the parent Luftflotte for administrative and supply purposes.
The Fliegerkorps were numbered consecutively in Roman numerals. However, during later reorganizations, most of these were replaced by the Fliegerkorps.
Some remained in operation on the Eastern Front. A Jagdkorps was a more specialized version of a Fliegerkorps with limited responsibility to fighter command only.
A Jagd-Division was subordinated to a Jagdkorps but specialized in fighter operations. Jagd-Divisionen fighter divisions were active at one point or other during this period.
Together the fighter force of Luftwaffe was also called Jagdwaffe. The Luftwaffe also had specialist units of varying sizes for testing new aircraft as well as captured Allied machines — these units could be as small as a Staffel , or as large as a Gruppe.
It was initially unnumbered and simply called the Lehrdivision Instruction Division but in later years several Erprobungskommando units of varying size were created to test specific new aircraft, usually numbered with the RLM aircraft designation system airframe number matching the aircraft they were meant to test.
Along with the aircraft test and evaluation, a Lehrdivision was also responsible for testing anti-aircraft defenses and air signals equipment.
The staff of this division were required to have prior combat experience. The Lehr units in this division were usually made part of operational units, receiving help from them for testing under combat conditions.
Unlike the Erprobungskommando units, a Lehrdivision did not undertake the testing of experimental aircraft.
As the war went on, some of the units under its command were used for operational purposes. In the Luftwaffe the largest mobile and autonomous unit was the Geschwader.
It would be used for different purposes such as bombing, interception both single and twin engine , ground attack and reconnaissance.
A Geschwader would be named, based on its purpose. They would be named with an Arabic numeral following the word. It was also customary to give an additional title to a Geschwader in honor of a distinguished person.
For example, Jagdgeschwader 2 was named Jagdgeschwader 2 Richthofen in honor of Manfred von Richthofen. Each Geschwader was commanded by a Geschwaderkommodore.
This person usually had the rank of Oberst equivalent to colonel , Oberstleutnant lieutenant colonel or major. He had a small staff along with an adjutant Staff Officer for operational as well as for administrative purposes.
There would be a Stabschwarm staff schwarm of four aircraft including the Geschwaderkommodore's aircraft. Typically there were three Gruppen groups under each Geschwader and sometimes a fourth or even a fifth gruppe was added to single engine fighter geschwader.
On several occasions, day fighter Geschwader or Jagdgeschwader were formed with four Gruppe strength from start. As the war progressed, the various sub-units of each numbered Geschwader operated separately and often on totally different fronts or theaters of war.
The Gruppe was the basic autonomous unit in the Luftwaffe, in both administration and strategic use. Each Gruppe would have a Stabschwarm staff schwarm of three aircraft.
The Gruppe would be commanded by a Gruppenkommandeur , that would be a Major or Hauptmann , who would have a small staff including administration, operations, medical and technical officers.
A Gruppe usually occupied one airfield. Gruppen from the same Geschwader typically occupied adjacent airfields.
Each would have an air signals platoon, mechanical and administrative personnel. There was also a trained fire-fighting crew doubling as police officers and staffed by the SS.
As with the Geschwader , the Gruppe included staff officers tasked with additional administrative duties, usually an adjutant, technical, medical and operations officers.
These officers were usually though not always experienced aircrew or pilots appointed from the operational cadre within the unit.
This would be combined with the abbreviated Geschwader designation — for example, the second Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 11 would be designated II.
Each Gruppe in turn consisted of three Staffeln. In total, each Gruppe had 30—40 aircraft including the Gruppenstab. A Gruppe was often transferred from one Geschwader to another.
After a transfer they would be re-designated. In the case of bomber Geschwader, an Ergänzungsgruppe training group might be attached to a Geschwader as the fifth Gruppe and designated 'V' Roman numeral 5.
Although all Gruppen in a Geschwader performed the same role, they were not always equipped with the same aircraft. This was more prevalent in fighter Geschwader , but did occur in bomber units as well.
Some Gruppen of a fighter Geschwader would be equipped with Messerschmitt Bf s, while others would be equipped with Focke-Wulf Fw s. There were several types of Gruppen acting in specialized autonomous roles, many centered around either reconnaissance or maritime-involved duties.
They were:. Other types of Gruppe -sized units of various types existed within the Luftwaffe structure as well:. Each Gruppe comprised three or four Staffeln , but by late a fourth Staffel was usually added to fighter units, making the established strength of the unit approximately 65 to 70 aircraft, although during the war years operational strength tended to fluctuate greatly.
Personnel strength varied between 35 and aircrew, and to ground personnel. During the mid-war years a fourth Gruppe was introduced in many Geschwader , initially as an operational training unit for new aircrew.
However, these Gruppen soon became additional front-line units, performing the same tasks as their sister formations, while new Ergänzungseinheiten , or operational training units, were formed and took up their tasks.
A Staffel usually had nine to 12 aircraft. Others had as few as five or six aircraft due to losses. The commanding officer of a Staffel was known as a Staffelkapitän and had the rank of Hauptmann , Oberleutnant or sometimes Leutnant.
Staffeln were numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals within a Geschwader irrespective of the Gruppe they came under.
The Staffel designation would be similar to that of the Gruppe except for the Arabic numerals. For example, Staffel 6 of Jagdgeschwader 27 would be designated 6.
The Staffeln of Gruppe I would be numbered 1, 2 and 3. Those of Gruppe II would be numbered 4, 5 and 6. This was continued for the rest of the Gruppen.
When a Staffel was transferred from one group to another or from one Geschwader to another, it would be re-numbered accordingly.
The Staffel usually had a few vehicles allocated to it, and a mobile Fliegerhorstkompanie air station company to carry out minor repairs.
These were usually named after and attached to a Geschwader. The number of ground staff varied depending on its type, with about for a fighter unit and 80 in a bomber unit — a smaller number of personnel were required in the bomber units as many of the servicing functions were carried out by attached units provided by the local Luftgau or "Air District".
The service test units often known as Erprobungskommando could also be of Staffel or Gruppe organizational size, as well as existing outside of any such "set" unit size as a Gruppe or Staffel — the Heinkel He was service-tested by a Staffel -sized unit, known as Erprobungsstaffel ,  frequently using the RLM airframe type number for the number of the unit testing the aircraft bearing it.
There were a few types of Staffeln acting in specialized autonomous, or semi-autonomous roles, if integrally attached to a Gruppe or Geschwader for differing duties from the main unit.
Some of these were:. The Luftwaffe began to set up their own nocturnal harassment Staffel-sized forces known as Störkampfstaffeln. Eventually Gruppe -sized Nachtschlachtgruppen were used for the same general purpose as the Soviet units.
The Luftwaffe's own harassment aviation units also used similarly obsolete aircraft, but of German design. The Heinkel He 46 , Arado Ar 66 , Focke-Wulf Fw 56 and even the standard training biplane, the Gotha Go , were all deployed in their efforts at attempting to emulate the success of the Soviets.
A few specialized Staffel sized units existed within the Luftwaffe for such specialized tasks as weather observation Wettererkundungsstaffeln , contracted to Wekusta , specialized weaponry a so-called Staffel 92 was meant to be equipped with the cannon-armed Ju 88P -series of bomber destroyer fighters and even outside the actual Luftwaffe, such as aircraft factory-operated defense Staffeln , at least one of which even operated the Me late in the war.
A Staffel was divided into three Schwärme singular: Schwarm , "swarm" , consisting of four to six aircraft.
Each bomber Schwarm at full strength, six aircraft was divided into a Kette "chain" of three aircraft. A fighter Schwarm four aircraft was divided into two Rotten singular: Rotte , "pack" of two aircraft, equivalent to a pair in the English-speaking world.
It had two aircraft flying in a loose pair called a 'Pack' German : Rotte. Two pairs constituted a German : Schwarm.
The four aircraft were flown in what was called the "Finger-four" formation. These aircraft were spread apart so that each pilot was offered maximum visibility.
This arrangement was so successful that Soviet pilots in the Spanish Civil War followed the same technique. However, on returning home, they had to revert to the standard "V" formation.
In this formation, where each aircraft flew in positions similar to the fingers of an open hand hence the name , the leader German : Rottenführer was at the front, while on his left wingtip was his partner from the Rotte.
The other Rotte was on the right wingtip of the leader. The partner in the second Rotte being on the right wingtip of his partner.
The Rotte fighting pair also added to its flexibility, as a Schwarm could easily break into two Rotte pairs without losing its fighting ability.
The Rottenführer could attack enemy aircraft, leaving his wingman to watch for the enemy. Tyskeren Julius Lothar Meyer publiserte en tabell omtrent samtidig med Mendelejev.
Det forklarer hvorfor grunnstoffene i samme gruppe har lignende kjemiske egenskaper. Det forklarer hvorfor grunnstoffenes egenskaper endrer seg systematisk bortover i en periode.
Som man ser er grunnstoffene i periodesystemet ordnet i blokker. Hver orbital har plass til to og bare to elektroner. IUPAC publiserer et enkelt periodesystem og som stadig oppdateres.
Her er grunnstoffene ordnet i 7 perioder og 18 grupper med lantanoider og actinoider skilt ut som her.
Kommentaren din publiseres her. Houston Museum av Shadow Byrd. Innhold Gruppenavn Systematikk i periodene Historie Oppdagelsen av periodesystemet Forhistorien Grunnstoffer funnet etter Forklaringen Dagens periodesystem Les mer i Store norske leksikon Eksterne lenker.
Last ned stor versjon av figuren PDF. En tabell med alle grunnstoffene. Av Erik Bolstad. Periodesystemet, Lisens: Falt i det fri Public domain. Flere av gruppene har egne navn: Grunnstoffene i gruppe 1 kalles alkalimetallene Grunnstoffene i gruppe 2 kalles jordalkalimetallene Grunnstoffene i gruppe 15 kalles pniktogenene Grunnstoffene i gruppe 16 kalles chalkogenene Grunnstoffene i gruppe 17 kalles halogenene Grunnstoffene i gruppe 18 kalles edelgassene.
Lisens: Begrenset gjenbruk. Les mer om atom. Bildet av periodesystemet er produsert av Store norske leksikon og kan lastes ned.
Last ned grunnstoffenes periodesystem i PDF-format. Kommentarer 8 2.